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Particle-Wave Duality: from Time Confinement to Space Transcendence

by Mohamed Haj Yousef



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3.1 The Duality of Time Postulate


Based on Ibn al-Arabi’s eccentric conception of dynamic re-creation, there are two main levels of time that are intertwined and circulated in the various ways as explained in Chapter IV of Volume I. According to this innovative view of time, the following simple postulate can be formulated:

• At every instance of the outward normal level of time, space and matter are perpetually being re-created in one chronological sequence, which forms the inward levels of time that are also nested inside each lower dimension of space.

This means that at every instance of the real flow of time there is only one metaphysical point, that is the unit of space-time geometry, and the Universe is a result of its perpetual recurrence in the inner level(s) of time, which is continuously and perpetually re-creating the dimensions of space and what it may contain of matter particle, which then kinetically evolve throughout the outer normal level of time that we encounter. This also includes all incorporeal creations that we have discussed in Chapter VI of Volume II, as well as throughout Volume III.

With regard to observers who are habitually living in the normal level of time, the process of re-creation is instantaneous, since it is performed by a massless metaphysical point, that is always moving at the speed of light, which is the only real speed in nature. Mass, energy and other physical properties, including velocity, acceleration and even the dimensions of matter and space, are only observable on the outward (imaginary) level of time, as a result of the temporal coupling between at least two metaphysical points or instances.

This metaphysical entity, that forms the unit of space-time geometry, is the Single Monad, and the discrete points of space are its temporal forms or individual temporary monads that occur through its perpetual recurrence in the inner levels of time which is dynamically creating the physical multiplicity, that then evolve on the outer level. As Niels Bohr had remarkably anticipated, the wave-particle duality is a metaphysical fact of nature.

The essential underlying principle in the Single Monad Model is that no two entities can ever co-exist together in a real single instance of time, so multiplicity can only emerge by sequential production through the inner levels before they start evolving in the outer level.

This can even be proved with simple logic, as follows:

We can conceive of seven different instances of space: “up” , “right” , “front” , “here’, “down” , “left” , and “back” . The observer who is at a particular instance of space, denoted as “here” , cannot realize any of the other six instances without moving through time, even in bare abstract thinking or imagination. So, with regard to the observer, what actually exists of space at every instance of time is only “here” . Time, on the other hand, is made from three different instances: the “future” , “now” and the “past” . The “future” does not yet exist at the present moment, which is denoted by “now” , and the “past” has already ceased. Therefore, what exists “here” is all what exists “now” for any particular observer, and this is not physical because it has no extension in space or time, i.e. it has no dimensions. Dimensions and all other physical properties are a consequence of the recurrence of this metaphysical reality that alone exists “here” and “now” , at every single real instance of time, and it is only multiplied with the flow of the inner levels of time, creating space and matter, which then evolve over the outer time dimension.

One possible objection to this simple logic is that we can actually “see” multiple things around us at the same single instance of time when we open our eyes. This is easily refuted because, even in thought, without any physical movement, one needs at least three moments to conceive of two different things and their possible relation to each other, but because time is extremely fast the whole picture is viewed as though it is happening in one instance. Moreover, what is actually perceived when we “see” multiple things is light, as the image of those physical things, and not the physical things themselves, and according to Relativity: light itself does not encounter time or distance; that is why the image of multiple things reach the observer at once even though they are created at different instances with relation to each other.

We must stress, however, that the Single Monad Model does not deny the objectivity of physical things, but it concludes that they are produced by the sequential multiplication over the inner dimension of time. Being part of this physical multiplicity that we describe as the Universe, the other parts are as objective as ourselves, but we cannot conceive of them without the flow of time. The Universe becomes nonobjective only if we suppose we are watching from outside, in which case it would appear as one changeless geometrical point, as a singularity or a black hole.

We have clearly demonstrated in the previous volumes how this single postulate leads, at the same time, to all the three principles of Special and General Relativity together, as well as Quantum Field Theory, including the first and second quantization, of energy and fields, and hence this “third quantization” of space-time itself, which will eliminate all kinds of infinities that are normally encountered in the current background continuum models, due to singularities in the ill-defined geometry.

Furthermore, as we shall see further below, according to this genuinely-complex time-time geometry, empty space is the aether itself that is the ground state of matter particles, so it will intrinsically contribute to mass and energy in the Universe, which accounts for its dark matter and energy. Moreover, because it is created in chronological sequence, the vacuum energy should be calculated from the average of all ground states, and not their collective summation as it is currently treated in quantum field theories. This key insight provides the ultimate solution to the vacuum catastrophe or the cosmological constant problem, as we demonstrated in Chapter V of Volume II, and we shall come back to this further bellow.

This sequential creation can also solve many other major problems in physics and cosmology. The homogeneity problem, for example, will instantly cease, since the Universe, no matter how large it could be, is re-created sequentially in the inner time, so all the states are updated and synchronized before they appear in the outer level of time.

More generally, this innovative model of sequential re-creation by the Single Monad can provide the first rational reasoning of the wave-particle duality, and explain other related essential observations and quantum mechanical concepts, such as uncertainty, the measurement problem or the effect of observers and consciousness, as well as the reality of wave function and its collapse. It suffices to mention here that the ontological reason behind uncertainty, which is the source of all quantum phenomena, is the fact that, at every instance of the real flow of time, there is only one active (metaphysical) monad that is moving at the speed of light, while the rest have already collapsed into passive sates. Therefore, the final eigenstate of a particle or object is defined only after the last active monad collapses, thus its position becomes instantly defined after it was uncertain because it was moving at the speed of light. Therefore, uncertainty is inversely proportional to the number of monads that constitute the particle, and that is why small objects or particles, which are made of a small number of monads, suffer greater uncertainty.

This is the first time in the history of mathematics that imaginary numbers have any intrinsic genuine reality. In fact, the real numbers” line is now a special abstract or extreme “unrealistic” approximation of those genuine complex numbers which describe the real flow of existence. This extreme approximation is realized only when the normal level of time is zero or infinite, and in this latter case it is also equivalent to zero but on a higher level of the inner time that is creating the dimensions of space.

Therefore, this will also have deep implications on the various fields of mathematics, such as geometry and number theory, because complex numbers are now genuinely natural while the reals are one of their special approximation. In the physical sense, space-time has become naturally quantized although it may look continuous, depending on the relative dimension in which the observer is situated. For example: the 2D plane is itself continuous with relation to its inner dimensions but it forms one discrete instance with relation to the flow of time in the encompassing 3D, which then appears internally continuous but discrete with regard to the encompassing outward time T.

One of the striking conclusions of this process of sequential re-creation in the inner levels of time is the fact that it conceives of only two primordial states: vacuum and void, whose spatial and temporal superposition is producing the multiplicity of all intermediary states that appear in the cosmos as matter particles. Vacuum, or empty space, is the continuous existence in the inner level of time, and void is the discrete existence in the outer level.

For normal observers who are habitually living, as discrete instances in the outer time, the continuous existence of vacuum appears moving at the terminal cosmological speed (of light) since it does not suffer the inertia that is experienced by massive particles and objects as they advance in the outer time. This inertia is the resistance that results from interrupting the continuous creation in the inner time in order to appear as discrete instances in the outer time. That is why the outer time is genuinely imaginary with relation to the inner time that is the real flow of creation.

Therefore, this dynamic and complex nature of time is the fundamental fact that underlines the emergence of dimensions. In other words: vacuum is the continuous and infinite existence which forms the inner real part of time, and whenever this existence is interrupted it makes a new dimension that appears as a discrete instance on the outer imaginary level which is then described as void because it does not last for more than one discrete instance, before it is re-created again in a new state that may resemble the previous perished states.

All the geometrical points of space and matter are sequentially fluctuating between these two existence and nonexistence states, or vacuum and void, which means that the actual instantaneous speed of each point in space can only change from v=0 to v=c, and vice versa.

This instantaneous abrupt change of speed does not contradict the laws of physics, because it is occurring sequentially in the inner levels of time before the physical objects are formed, while “space” and “mass” , and all other physical properties, are actually generated from the temporal coupling and decoupling, or entanglement, of these geometrical points, which is exhibited only on the outward time level. The normal limited velocities of massive physical particles and objects are a result of the spatial and temporal superposition of the various dual-states velocities of their individual points.

This single postulate explains the three principles of Relativity all at once, since the speed of light is the only real speed in nature, and all frames are effectively at rest in the normal (imaginary) level of time, so there is no difference between inertial and non-inertial frames, thus there is even no need to introduce the second principle of Special Relativity, which says that the laws of physics are invariant between inertial frames, neither the equivalence principle that leads to General Relativity. These two principles, which are necessary to derive Lorentz factor and Einstein’s field equations, will follow directly from the complex-time geometry as it will be explained and derived in the book.

Furthermore, it will be shown that this essential fact that results from the genuinely complex nature of time is the only way that allows exact mathematical derivation of the mass-energy equivalence relation (E=mc2) directly from the fundamental classical principles. Einstein gave various heuristic arguments for this relation without ever being able to prove it in any theoretical way, as he repeatedly acknowledged.

Accordingly, the Duality of Time will lead to full quantum field theory of gravity because it is now based on discrete instances of dynamic space, without any background. Additionally, the other fundamental forces can now be interpreted in terms of this new complex-time geometry, but in lower dimensions: 2D+1, 1D+1, and 0D+1, while gravity is in 3D+1.

As a result of this unification, most, if not all, of the major fundamental problems of physics and cosmology are easily solved in this model. The homogeneity problem, for example, will instantly cease, since the Universe, no matter how large it could be, is re-created sequentially in the inner time, so all the states are updated and synchronized before they appear in the outer level of time.

Actually, the Duality of Time postulate is capable of taking the fundamental philosophical observations to profound new levels, because the most basic principle of causality becomes a consequence of the sequential re-creation. Therefore, without breaking the speed of light limit, this sequential re-creation can explain non-locality, the uncertainty principle, and various other critical quantum mechanical issues.

Furthermore, in addition to solving the major problems of physics and cosmology, the Duality of Time does not only unify all the fundamental interactions in terms of its genuinely-complex time-time geometry, but it unifies this whole physical world with the two other even more fundamental domains of the psychical and spiritual worlds. All these three conclusive and complementary realms are constructed on the same concept of complex time-time geometry that together form one single absolute and perfectly symmetrical spherical space.

Among many other astonishing consequences, this astounding conclusion means that the psychical world is composed of atoms and molecules that are exactly identical with the physical world, except that they are evolving in a conjugate time direction, which is why we feel them but describe them as incorporeal. It may initially appear impossible to believe how spiritual worlds may have the same atomic structure as the physical world, but it is more appropriate to say that physical structures are eventually incorporeal, because they become pure wave phenomena and energy interactions as soon as we dive into their microscopic levels, as it is now confirmed by Quantum Field Theories. In the Duality of Time Theory, since rigid space is created sequentially in the inner time, energy may become negative, imaginary and even multidimensional, which simply means that all things in creation are various kinds of energy moments that are spreading on different intersecting dimensions of time, and contributing in physical and non-physical interactions depending on their plane of existence, although they all have the same fundamental space-time structure. Therefore, not only mass and energy are equivalent and convertible according to E=mc2, but also charge and all other physical and metaphysical entities are geometrical space-time structures with interconvertible types of energy, including consciousness and abstract information.

Therefore, speaking, writing, painting, and all kinds of interfering colors, shapes and inscriptions; all these otherwise abstract meanings are essentially made of particles covered by the same symmetry of the Standard Model, and this is indeed the missing super-symmetry which solves many fundamental problems, such as the hierarchy problem and baryonic asymmetry.

What is even more amazing is that this extraordinary unification between the various apparently incompatible physical and spiritual sciences is based on the same classical conceptions found in most ancient philosophies and contemporary religions, that describe different layers of creation beyond the physical world, such as the incorporeal creations of Angels and Jinn, in addition to describing the various unseen fundamental structures beyond stars and galaxies, such as the seven heavens and the four classical elements of earth, water, air and fire; all these creations and realms are now equally described in terms of the same complex-time geometry. This will open many doorways to whole new kinds of sciences and give the possibility of extending existing technologies onto the other spiritual domains, and vice versa. Many overwhelming historical records and manuscripts show that sciences and applications such as Alchemy and other occult practices have been widely used in ancient traditions, although most have been actually interpreted in various wrong manners and were eventually greatly misused by swindlers and magicians. This, however, does not falsify other sciences, such as energy meditation, dowsing, and many other mysterious applications.

The Duality of Time Theory does not only explain how the Universe appears ex-nihilo, but that it is always in this ontological state of potential existence, only perpetually and discreetly coming into being for some series of consecutive discrete instances of time, the duration of each is absolutely zero, but as a result of our manipulative past memory and future expectation we imagine time extensions in which we are no more than passing shadows making some monotonous noise for this short period of imaginary time, before we leave this world to a relatively higher level of existence. Often when I retire, for a few days, and then come back again to think about this mysterious nature of time and perpetual creation, I need to study everything thoroughly from the beginning again, in order to retain the logical image of this impermeable reality beyond ordinary human imagination.



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The Duality of Time Theory: Complex-Time Geometry and Perpertual Creation of Space
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The Chest of Time: Particle-Wave Duality: from Time Confinement to Space Transcendence

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Message from the Author:

I have no doubt that this is the most significant discovery in the history of mathematics, physics and philosophy, ever!

By revealing the mystery of the connection between discreteness and contintuity, this novel understanding of the complex (time-time) geometry, will cause a paradigm shift in our knowledge of the fundamental nature of the cosmos and its corporeal and incorporeal structures.

Enjoy reading...

Mohamed Haj Yousef


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As a result of the original divine manifestation, all kinds of motions are driven by Love and Passion. Who could possibly not instantly fall in love with this perfect and most beautiful harmony! Beauty is desirable for its own essence, and if the Exalted (Real) did not manifest in the form of beauty, the World would not have appeared out into existence.
paraphrased from: Ibn al-Arabi [The Meccan Revelations: II.677.12 - trsn. Mohamed Haj Yousef]
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