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ULTIMATE SYMMETRY:

Fractal Complex-Time and Quantum Gravity

by Mohamed Haj Yousef



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CHAPTER II: SUPER SYMMETRY


Knowing and the Psychical World
Hyperbolic Geometry and Time Confinement
Consciousness and Quantum Mechanics

 

(Allah) is the One Who is splitting the Heavens and the Earth. He made for you pairs of yourselves, and pairs of livestock. Thus does He multiply you. Nothing is like His Image, and He is the All-Hearing and the All-Seeing. Quran [42:11], semi-literal translation by the author.

Our perception of things occurs as a result of the meeting between the light of sight and the light of the luminous object, such as the Sun or a lamp. Originally, the Cosmos is all-darkness and it can only be seen by these two lights (when they meet) because the World comes into existence as a result of its (inherent) acceptability (or Willing , that s like the receptive light of sight) and the Ability of the Real (that s like the creative light of luminous objects). You should know this subtle fact, if you could understand it, since the philosophers are not able to discern it, because it is one of the highest mysteries of Allah, from which you could appreciate the permanence of the Real and the emergence of creation. Ibn al-Arabi, paraphrased from the Meccan Revelations, I.240.1

I m a fan of super symmetry, largely because it seems to be the only route by which gravity can be brought into the scheme. It s probably not even enough, but it s a way forward to get gravity involved. Peter Higgs, New Scientist, July 29, 2012

The fundamental reason why gravity is resisting all attempts of quantization is because we are observing only one-half of the world, not realizing that the consciousness of the observer is its super-symmetric partner, and not just an abstract thing as it seems to be on the physical side. The Cosmos becomes three dimensional with these two complementary physical and psychical realms, while separately each one of them has only two spatial dimensions evolving in the outer level of time that we encounter, and each spatial dimension is composed of two orthogonal and complementary time directions. Because it is a fractional dimension, time is having a negative signature which is reducing the number of dimensions rather than increasing them, since we are living inside this encompassing geometry. Our perception of the Cosmos is occurring as a result of the sequential pairing between these two complementary worlds, since our sense of vision, as the optimal tool for direct physical observation, can only perceive one two-dimensional image at a time, but then these images are integrated in our cognitive imagination to form the three-dimensional image of the surrounding world, where gravity is operating.

Therefore, although it is essentially quantized, just as anything else in creation, gravity is always perceived as a continuous phenomena, because we are observing it from within the same level of its operation, so since we are being re-recreated with all other massive objects and their background geometry we deceptively conceive them to be continuously existing and moving in time, but the fact is that everything is being re-created at every discrete instance. In contrast, the reason why we are able to observe the quantum nature of electromagnetic phenomena is because they are two-dimensional waves, and we are observing them from the third dimension. This means that Quantum Gravity can only be observed from a fourth dimension, or higher, and that s why super symmetry appears to be essential to complete the Standard Model of Elementary Particles.

However, super symmetry, and Quantum Gravity, may not be achieved without understanding the genuinely-complex nature of time that can explain the Cosmos without the need to define it in any preexisting background geometry or topology. Therefore, because the outer time is a fractional dimension of the total complex-time geometry, our three-dimensional world becomes  rather than  as it is normally treated in Relativity and Quantum Field theories. For this reason, as we shall show in Chapter III, General Relativity is a sufficient description at every instance of time, only, because our perception of the three spatial dimensions is instantaneous, and that s why it appears to be continuous, but to describe how the World is evolving throughout time we need a Quantum Field Theory of Gravity. When the two-dimensional light wave that is radiated from the surfaces of physical objects, that is the first half of the world, meets with the (two-dimensional wave of the) light of the observer, that is the psychical world, then these two halves form together the three spatial dimensions that we perceive and imagine living in. Quantum gravity is achieved only by incorporating these two super symmetric worlds, that are already included in the Standard Model as well as Strings Theory, as the known fermionic particles and their anti-particles, respectively. Therefore, the super symmetry we are searching for is the same present particle symmetry itself, and the rare anti-particles that we can occasionally observe in the physical world are only some casual wanderers reflected from the psychical world that is indeed identical with the physical side. As far as they are confined in that orthogonal time arrow, they appear to be extremely heavy, but as soon as they emerge into the physical world they will have the same properties as their counter particles.

The psychical entities have exactly the same structure as the physical objects, with the same kinds of elementary particles, atoms, crystals, and even rocks and mountains; but they are denoted as incorporeal because they exist in an orthogonal dimension of time. Therefore, the fermions in our physical world appear to behave as bosons in the psychical world, and vice versa. This follows directly from the new genuinely-complex nature of time, where the dimensions of space are created dynamically in the inner levels, and that s why the outer time is latent. This will also allow expressing super symmetry, through these two orthogonal and complementary arrows of time, without the need to introduce any super space which requires anti-commuting numbers. In brief, the physical world and its anti-world are described as  and  respectively, so when they are multiplied together they produce an instance of our ontic image of the  flat space, that appears to be spherically symmetrical Euclidean space, at every instance of time, but without time. We shall see in Chapter III that this space, is the spiritual world that is nothing but light photons as well as other massless bosons. So, as we shall see in the following chapter, these bosons mirror both the fermions and their antiparticles according to the same mass-energy equivalence relation  which regulates the hyper-symmetry of the spiritual world.

As we explained in Chapter VII of Volume II, the Universal Body and the Initial Body of the Cosmos are expressed in terms of the complex-time geometry as  and  respectively, while the Universal Spirit is . Allah says in Quran: (Have the Unbelievers not considered that theHeavensand theEarthwere entangled, thus We split them, and We made fromWater everything living? Will they not believe then?) [Quran, 21:30]. TheEarth, in this verse, is the Universal Body  and theHeavensare the Universal Spirit , because they correspond to the lowest and highest state(s) of space-time, respectively, whileWateris , because this  flat space describes the state of vacuum, which is a perfect Bose-Einstein super fluid from which the matter particles are excited. The reason why the Heavens are plural here is because of the seven different space-time degrees of freedom that include the six internal levels that constitute the three spatial dimensions, and one for the outer time, while the Earth  is the common ground state for all these seven levels, although each Heaven also has its own relative Earth, or ground state, in the corresponding level of time, thus we actually have seven Heavens and seven Earths, as it is alluded in another verse [Quran, 65:12], and as we have described in the Introduction.

Hence, according to the above Quranic verses [21:30, 65:12], these seven Heavens and their relative Earths were initially entangled, and then they have been split into the physical world and its anti-world that exist in parallel; on two opposite arrows of time, and they are continuously interacting, or perpetually annihilating and splitting again, or converting between mass and energy according to the famous equation , that had been derived in Chapter V of Volume II based on the Duality of Time hypothesis, where we also showed that this critical relation cannot otherwise be derived without introducing some approximations.

The reason why we do not notice this Cosmic Annihilation, that is taking place at every instance of the outer time, is because it is happening in the inner levels, but in reality it is these fundamental interaction(s) that are causing all kinds of perceptions, which are the ongoing interactions between the physical and psychical worlds, or the meeting of the two lights alluded to in the opening epigraph at the top of this chapter.

The state of Water , from which Allah made everything living, is the  vacuum state , which is the ground state of matter, since the physical particles are its excitations in the outward level of time, that are then described by , as we have introduced in Chapter V of volume II. This means that particles are created internally at the speed of light  in the inner real  spatial dimensions, and they are moving externally at the imaginary velocity  in the outer level of time that we encounter. When this imaginary velocity tends to zero, this corresponds to absolute zero temperature, which produces a perfectly non-interacting super fluid described by Bose-Einstein statistics, because its points are absolutely indistinguishable.

In the same manner, the orthogonal state of  is described as Air , or super gas, because we cannot observe it despite the fact that we are immersed in it, just like normal air; and this is actually the dark energy that is balancing the effect of gravity on large scales, while dark matter is the inert state of Water  that is the  vacuum described above. Therefore, just as normal matter particles are the excitations of the Water state , anti-particles are the excitations of the Air state , while the state of  and  are the super mass and super energy, which are Earth and Fire, respectively. These classical four elements, which the Sumerians employed to explain the complexity of nature, are the four condensation levels of their Quintessence that is nothing but the Single Monad. We shall talk more about these abstract subjects in the concluding Chapter IV.

Super symmetry was utilized in order to solve the Hierarchy Problem of the Standard Model of Elementary Particles, and it is also a key ingredient for the consistency of Strings, or Super-Strings, Theory. In order to achieve this symmetry, every known particle, including the anti-particles, must have a super partner to complete the symmetry between bosons and fermions; so that every fermion has a boson super partner, and vice versa. This will ensure that any loop in a radiative correction is canceled by the loop corresponding to its super partner, rendering the theory more finite in the ultra-violate range. However, no such super partners have been ever observed, so if super symmetry existed it should have been broken severely. As indeed it is truly, utterly broken into two apparently separate worlds!

Despite the intense efforts over the last decades, there is no consistent theory of Quantum Gravity. Some of the major approaches include super gravity and String Theory, as well as the canonical quantization, such as Loop Quantum Gravity and some other discrete models that emphasize the geometrical aspects of space-time. In the framework of LQG, and group field theory, a non-perturbative and background independent framework is necessary to describe the fluctuations of geometry itself, leading to a discrete structure at the Planck scale. Therefore, the quantum dynamics of gravity is directly connected with space-time itself in a way that may allow studying singularities, where classical General Relativity breaks down. In the Duality of Time Theory, this issue is solved automatically since the complex-time explains how the geometry itself is being dynamically created without any other predefined background geometry or topology, apart from simple counting based on the natural numbers set . The theory even explains how the reals are produced from this natural set, and thus all other complicated mathematical and geometrical structures, as we shall describe at he end of Chapter IV.

On the other hand, the approach of String Theory, in tackling the problem of Quantum Gravity, is based on the requirement of mathematical consistency and the non-renormalizability of perturbatively quantized gravity, and the need to incorporate the non-gravitational interactions are likely to introduce essential modifications on General Relativity at the Planck scale. This approach may also lead to a geometrization of the other fundamental forces, as exemplified by Kaluza-Klein theories and super gravity, and the unification of matter and gravity. This could explain how space-time is dissolved at very small distances, so that General Relativity emerges only as an effective low energy theory, valid for distances above the Planck scale. Super strings, super membrane, and super symmetric matrix theories are the most promising fields in this direction, especially the framework of the so-called AdS/CFT correspondence, as we shall discuss in section II.3.2 below. Nevertheless, the Duality of Time Theory provided a full geometrization of all fundamental forces, and extended that to the incorporeal worlds, without introducing any new extra dimensions, although in fact the treatment of the outer time as a multi-fractal dimension is equivalent to considering the Cosmos as having infinite number of dimensions since each instance of time becomes a complete dimension. After that, since matter particles are certain quantum excitations of the complex-time field, a minimum number of dimensions will be required to produce the real-world particles, which is expected to be consistent with the curled dimensions of String Theory.

 



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Message from the Author:

I have no doubt that this is the most significant discovery in the history of mathematics, physics and philosophy, ever!

By revealing the mystery of the connection between discreteness and contintuity, this novel understanding of the complex (time-time) geometry, will cause a paradigm shift in our knowledge of the fundamental nature of the cosmos and its corporeal and incorporeal structures.

Enjoy reading...

Mohamed Haj Yousef


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