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DUALITY OF TIME:

Complex-Time Geometry and Perpetual Creation of Space

by Mohamed Haj Yousef



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3.5.3  Quantum Electrodynamics


The basic idea behind Quantum Field Theory is that the electromagnetic field should be represented by matrices in the same way that position and momentum were represented in Quantum Mechanics. The ideas of Quantum Mechanics were thus extended to systems having an infinite number of degrees of freedom, as infinite array of quantum oscillators. This was started in 1927, by Dirac, in his famous paper on “the quantum theory of the emission and absorption of radiation”, in which he coined the name “Quantum Electrodynamics” (QED), which was the first Quantum Field Theory (QFT).

In his paper, Dirac proposed a systematic procedure for transferring the characteristic quantum phenomenon, or the discreteness of physical quantities, from the quantum-mechanical treatment of particles to fields. Employing the theory of the quantum harmonic oscillator, Dirac gave a theoretical description of how photons appear in the quantization of the electromagnetic field. Later, Dirac’s procedure became a model for the quantization of other fields, as will be described further in section 5. Quantum Electrodynamics is, therefore, based on the quantization of the electromagnetic field, in addition to the relativistic theory of the electron from the Dirac wave equation that we discussed in section 5.2.

In QED, electric charges are the sources of the electric field, which exerts a force on any particles that carry electric charges, such as electrons, protons, and quarks. As a result, these electric charges move, and a current flows, and a magnetic field is then produced. The changing magnetic field, in turn, causes electric current. The physical description of these interacting charged particles, electrical currents, electrical fields, and magnetic fields is called Electromagnetism, and QED is a relativistic quantum theory of Electromagnetism.

This first approach by Dirac was developed further with contributions from Pauli, Heisenberg, Fermi and Wigner. In the beginning, physicists believed that with QED it is possible to perform any computation for any physical process involving photons and charged particles. However, further studies in 1937 and 1939, revealed that such computations were reliable only at a first order of perturbation theory. At higher orders in the series infinities emerged, making such computations meaningless and casting serious doubts on the internal consistency of the theory itself.

More difficulties with QED theory were realized in the 1940s, due to further discrepancies after the improvements in microwave technology made it possible to take more precise measurements of the shift of the levels of a hydrogen atom, now known as the Lamb shift and magnetic moment of the electron.



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  • ... mes summation because it is an abrupt change, since the change in the outward time is zero, and here we consider , since the apparent velocity does not change in this case, but we will also DISCUSS RELATIVISTIC mass in section 3.3.4 below; thus we get: (5.9) The difference between the abov ...


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  • ... n the outer level, as demonstrated in Figure 5.1. So by integrating equation 5.7 directly from zero to , which then becomes summation because it is an abrupt change, since the change in the OUTWARD TIME is zero, and here we consider , since the apparent velocity does not change in this cas ...


  • ... Geometrical Points =>:

  • ... y of Time and the resulting perpetual re-creation, this problem is solved because the conversion between mass and energy takes place sequentially, in the inward level, over all the massless GEOMETRICAL POINTS that constitute the particle, and this whole process appears as once instance in ...


  • ... Apparent Velocity =>:

  • ... integrating equation 5.7 directly from zero to , which then becomes summation because it is an abrupt change, since the change in the outward time is zero, and here we consider , since the APPARENT VELOCITY does not change in this case, but we will also discuss relativistic mass in sectio ...


  • ... Relativistic Mass =>:

  • ... ation because it is an abrupt change, since the change in the outward time is zero, and here we consider , since the apparent velocity does not change in this case, but we will also discuss RELATIVISTIC MASS in section 3.3.4 below; thus we get: (5.9) The difference between the above two ca ...


  • ... Physical Motion =>:

  • ... tion in equation 5.7 if, and only if, we suppose that the object, whose mass is , moves from rest to , or vice versa, in “zero time”, which of course will contradict the laws of PHYSICAL MOTION because the acceleration would be infinite, and hence the force and the energy. Ligh ...


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  • ... kinetic energy . Arrow 2: abrupt change from zero to in the inward level of time, leading to the mass-energy equivalence relation , which can not happen on the normal level of time because PHYSICAL OBJECTS may not move at the speed of light.     Read Other Books: The Single Mona ...


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  • ... es the kinetic energy is the area of the triangle below the gradual arrow (1), while in the second case it is the area of the rectangle below the right angle arrow (2). Figure 5.4: Arrow 1: GRADUAL CHANGE of speed in the outer level of time, leading to the classical equation of kinetic ene ...


  • ... Pair Production =>:

  • ... course will contradict the laws of physical motion because the acceleration would be infinite, and hence the force and the energy. Light does in fact behave in this manner, for example: in PAIR PRODUCTION , or when emitted or absorbed; but the photon is massless, unlike other particles and ...


  • ... Classical Equation =>:

  • ... arrow (1), while in the second case it is the area of the rectangle below the right angle arrow (2). Figure 5.4: Arrow 1: gradual change of speed in the outer level of time, leading to the CLASSICAL EQUATION of kinetic energy . Arrow 2: abrupt change from zero to in the inward level of ti ...


  • ... Normal Level =>:

  • ... to the classical equation of kinetic energy . Arrow 2: abrupt change from zero to in the inward level of time, leading to the mass-energy equivalence relation , which can not happen on the NORMAL LEVEL of time because physical objects may not move at the speed of light.     Read ...


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I have no doubt that this is the most significant discovery in the history of mathematics, physics and philosophy, ever!

By revealing the mystery of the connection between discreteness and contintuity, this novel understanding of the complex (time-time) geometry, will cause a paradigm shift in our knowledge of the fundamental nature of the cosmos and its corporeal and incorporeal structures.

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Mohamed Haj Yousef


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