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DUALITY OF TIME:

Complex-Time Geometry and Perpetual Creation of Space

by Mohamed Haj Yousef



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3.6.6  Standard Model of Cosmology


The mathematical framework for the Big Bang model relies on General Relativity and on simplifying assumptions such as homogeneity and isotropy of space. The governing equations were formulated by Friedmann, and similar solutions were worked on by Willem de Sitter (1872-1934). Astrophysicists have incorporated observational and theoretical additions into the Big Bang model, and its parametrization as the Lambda-CDM model serves as the framework for current investigations of theoretical cosmology.

The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the Universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution. The model describes how the Universe expanded from a very high density and high temperature state, and offers a comprehensive explanation for a broad range of phenomena, including the four pillars:

1.Hubble’s law: This law has two possible explanations; either we are at the center of an explosion of galaxies, which is untenable given the Copernican principle, or the Universe is uniformly expanding everywhere. 2.Cosmic microwave background (CMB): The electromagnetic radiation left over from an early stage of the Universe in Big Bang cosmology was discovered accidentally in 1964. This faint radiation was predicted in 1948. 3.Abundance of light elements: The relative abundances of light elements depend on the ratio of photons to baryons, which can be calculated independently from the detailed structure of CMB fluctuations. This has been compared with the predicted values based on the Big Bang model, and found to agree very well at least for some elements. 4.Large scale structure: Observations of distant galaxies and quasars show that these objects are red-shifted uniformly and isotropically in all directions. If the redshift is interpreted as a Doppler shift, the recessional velocity of the object can be calculated. For some galaxies, it is possible to estimate distances via the cosmic distance ladder. When the recessional velocities are plotted against these distances, a linear relationship known as Hubble’s law is observed.

Detailed measurements of the expansion rate of the Universe place the Big Bang at around 13.8 billion years ago, which is thus considered the age of the Universe. After the initial expansion, the Universe cooled sufficiently to allow the formation of subatomic particles and simple atoms. Giant clouds of these primordial elements later coalesced through gravity in halos of dark matter, eventually forming the stars and galaxies visible today.



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Message from the Author:

I have no doubt that this is the most significant discovery in the history of mathematics, physics and philosophy, ever!

By revealing the mystery of the connection between discreteness and contintuity, this novel understanding of the complex (time-time) geometry, will cause a paradigm shift in our knowledge of the fundamental nature of the cosmos and its corporeal and incorporeal structures.

Enjoy reading...

Mohamed Haj Yousef


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