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ULTIMATE SYMMETRY:

Fractal Complex-Time and Quantum Gravity

by Mohamed Haj Yousef



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IV.1.2 The Three Categories of Existence


The basic ontological issue for Ibn al-Arabi is very clear and simple: in many places throughout his writings, such as the long chapter 198 of the Meccan Revelations [II.390-478] he follows the established Avicennian distinction, familiar to all students of Islamic theology and philosophy by his time, in dividing all conceivable things, in terms of existence, into three basic categories already demonstrated in Figure IV.2:

1. The absolute Existence, or Being, that has always been and is always existing.

2. The absolute possibility, or contingent existence, that has always been and is always possible to exist.

3. The absolute non-existence, that has always been and is always non-existing.

 

Then he explains that absolute Existence doesn t accept non-existence, and absolute non-existence doesn t accept existence, while the absolutely possible does accept existence through an ontologically determining cause, as it also accepts non-existence through a cause. The absolute Existence is Allah, nothing other than Him. The absolute non-existence is the impossible-to-exist, nothing other than it. And the absolutely possible, of contingent existence, is the world, nothing other than it: its (ontological) level is between the absolute Existence and absolute non-existence. Insofar as some of it faces non-existence, it accepts non-existence; and insofar as some of it faces Existence, it accepts existence. So some of it is darkness, and that is the Nature, and some of it is light, and that is the Breath of the All-Merciful which bestows existence upon this possible realm of created beings [II.426.26].

Ibn al-Arabi then goes on to give the crucial analysis which clearly explains his profound view of the Oneness of Being in the most explicit and concise manner, which also explains principle of ongoing re-creation:

The possible (contingent) existence became manifest between light and darkness, nature and spirit, the unseen and the visible, and the veiled and unveiled. Therefore, that which is close to absolute Existence, from among all that (contingent realm) we have mentioned, is light and spirit, and all of what we have mentioned which is close to absolute non-existence is shadow and body, and from the totality (of those different kinds of contingent existent) forms (of the whole of creation) come to be. So when you consider the world from the side of the Breath of the All-Merciful, you say: It is nothing but Allah . But when you consider it with regard to its being equally balanced and well-proportioned (between existence and non-existence), then you say these are creations. ...

Through this (divine creative) Breath, the whole world is breathing (animated with life), and the Breath made it appear. So (this creative divine Breath) is the inner dimension for the Real, and the manifest dimension for creation: thus the inner dimension of the Real is the manifest dimension for creation, and the inner dimension of creation is the manifest aspect of the Real, and through their combination the generated existence is actualized, since without that combination it would (only) be said to be Real and creation. Thus the Real is for the absolute Existence, and creation is for the absolutely possibility, and what becomes non-existent of the world and its form that disappears is through what is close to the side of non-existence; and what remains of it and doesn t allow for non-existence is through what is closeness to the side of Existence. Hence these two things (Existence and non-existence) are continually ruling over the world, so the creation is always new with every Breath, both in this world and in the hereafter.

Therefore, the Breath of the All-Merciful is continually directed (toward the Act of creation), and (the dark) Nature is continually taking on existence as the forms for this Breath, so that the divine Command does not become inactive, because inactivity is not appropriate (for It). Constantly, forms are newly appearing and becoming manifest, according to their states of readiness to accept the (divine creative) Breath.

This is the clearest possible (concise description) of the (divine) origination of the world. And Allah says the truth and He shows the way (33:4). [II.427.17]

 

In conclusion, the world can be conceived as a mixture of light and darkness. The latter is quite literally nothing, but it is simply the absence of light that is ultimately the Real Himself, via His divine Name the Light . Sine the Real is One, so all existence is in essence also one. Multiplicity appears through creation as a result of mixing the oneness of light with the conceptual darkness of non-existence. In other words, we can say, since darkness is absolutely nothing, that the creation is the constantly repeating relative manifestations of the Real. The Real manifests most perfectly in the Perfect Human, and relatively in other creatures, including human beings, and these manifestations happen through the Universal Intellect that is the Single Monad. The Existence of Allah is described by intrinsic endurance, and the existence of the Universal Intellect is endured by Allah, while the existence of everything else is relative and temporal, as we noted in the opening epigraph. In real existence there is only the Real Who is Allah, and this Universal Intellect who is the Messenger of Allah.

This is the basic ontological principle of creation, but in order to understand the details we need to explain how the mixing between light and darkness is processed, which is again to say: how is the world created? , which raises the question of the real flow of time, that is now explained according to the Duality of Time Theory which demonstrates how the dimensions of space are being perpetually re-created by the Single Monad.

Given the profoundly complicated details and the possible confusions and misunderstandings surrounding this understanding of the complex creation process, it is clear now why Ibn al-Arabi never declared these ideas in overly simplistic terms in his books, but rather scattered them throughout his writings, as he explains quite explicitly at the very beginning of his Meccan Revelations [I.38.25], so that the common people wouldn t confuse them with other incorrect or inadequate doctrines, and so that only those properly prepared thinkers and patient readers would be able to discover their profound intended meanings.

 



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I have no doubt that this is the most significant discovery in the history of mathematics, physics and philosophy, ever!

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