# DUALITY OF TIME:

Complex-Time Geometry and Perpetual Creation of Space

# 2.5.3  The Flying Arrow

If we consider the path of an arrow in flight, and assuming that space and time are discrete: at each instant of its path, the Arrow occupies some position in space; this is what it means to say that space is discrete. But to occupy a certain position in space is to be at rest in this position! So throughout all the points of the entire path of the Arrow through space, it is in fact at rest, because at any indivisible instance of time it must be at some discrete position, so its instantaneous velocityis always zero. If in an indivisible instant of time the Arrow moved, then indeed this instant of time would be divisible, for example, in a smaller instant of time the Arrow would have moved half that distance. Yet in the end the arrow reaches the target, moving at an average positive speed, which means that the sum of zeros is not equal to zero:!

Figure 2.2: If space is not infinitely divisible, the distance from start to target is composed ofdiscrete points. At any discrete pointalong the flight of the Arrow to its target, its instantaneous velocityis always zero. Yet the Arrow reaches the target at an average positive speed! The Arrow can not move between the discrete points, because space is supposed to be divisible only down to those discrete points, and so are the instants of time when the Arrow occupies these points.

Russell describes this astounding conclusion by: “It is never moving, but in some miraculous way the change of position has to occur between the instants, that is to say, not at any time whatever” Salmon (2001).

The strength of the Single Monad Model comes exactly from its innovative explanation of this “miraculous way” of the “change of position” without actual motion. This offers what is known as the “at-at theory of motion”, which agrees that there can be no motion “during” a durationless instant, and contends that all that is required for motion is that the Arrow be at one point at one time, at another point another time, and at appropriate points between those two points for intervening times. In this view, motion is a function of position with respect to time. So in fact there is no gradual motion in the common sense that the object leaves its place to occupy new adjacent places, but it is successively re-created in those new places, i.e. motion occurs as a result of discrete change and not infinitesimal transmutation, so the observed objects are always at rest in the different positions that they appear in. This will be discussed and demonstrated further in chapter V.

# Other Pages Related to Search Keywords:

• ... Its Consequences on General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics ...

• ## ... Standard Mode =>:

• ... ly because of this historical break that Quantum Mechanics came out late and with new terminology, and physicists had to wait many decades after the beginning of Quantum Mechanics until the Standard Model of Quantum Field Theory established the fact that elementary particles are the quanta ...

• ## ... Standard Model =>:

• ... ly because of this historical break that Quantum Mechanics came out late and with new terminology, and physicists had to wait many decades after the beginning of Quantum Mechanics until the Standard Model of Quantum Field Theory established the fact that elementary particles are the quanta ...

• ## ... Elementary Particle =>:

• ... ut late and with new terminology, and physicists had to wait many decades after the beginning of Quantum Mechanics until the Standard Model of Quantum Field Theory established the fact that ELEMENTARY PARTICLE s are the quanta of field excitations, which are nothing but the monads. Islamic ...

• ## ... Elementary Particles =>:

• ... ut late and with new terminology, and physicists had to wait many decades after the beginning of Quantum Mechanics until the Standard Model of Quantum Field Theory established the fact that ELEMENTARY PARTICLES are the quanta of field excitations, which are nothing but the monads. Islamic ...

• ## ... Mechanical Philosophy =>:

• ... ITY OF TIME: Complex-Time Geometry and Perpetual Creation of Space by Mohamed Haj Yousef Search Inside this Book 2.14.1  Monadology Monads can also be compared to the corpuscles of the Mechanical Philosophy, they are the ultimate elements of the universe. They are substantial forms of ...

• ## ... Field Excitations =>:

• ... hysicists had to wait many decades after the beginning of Quantum Mechanics until the Standard Model of Quantum Field Theory established the fact that elementary particles are the quanta of FIELD EXCITATIONS , which are nothing but the monads. Islamic scholars were particularly fascinated w ...

• ## ... Practical Applications =>:

• ... ntities. Unfortunately, Descartes and Leibniz theories of corpuscles and monads had not received adequate attention, unlike Newtonâ€™s Mechanics which quickly found many industrial and PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS , and was eventually developed by Einstein into the Theory of Relativity. Alth ...

• ## ... Eventually Developed =>:

• ... s and Leibniz theories of corpuscles and monads had not received adequate attention, unlike Newtonâ€™s Mechanics which quickly found many industrial and practical applications, and was EVENTUALLY DEVELOPED by Einstein into the Theory of Relativity. Although, in essence, had it been gi ...

• ## ... Greek Philosophers =>:

• ... are derived. Plato used in the plural as a synonym for the Ideas, while Aristotle use it as the principle of number, itself being devoid of quantity, indivisible and unchangeable. For many Greek philosophers, including Pythagoras, Parmenides, Xenophanes, Plato, Aristotle, and Plotinus, Mo ...

• ## ... Entire Universe =>:

• ... the ultimate elements of the universe. They are substantial forms of being, they are eternal, indecomposable, individual, subject to their own laws, un-interacting, and each reflecting the ENTIRE UNIVERSE in a pre-established harmony. Monads are also centers of force, while space, matter, ...

• ## ... Ultimate Element =>:

• ... nd Perpetual Creation of Space by Mohamed Haj Yousef Search Inside this Book 2.14.1  Monadology Monads can also be compared to the corpuscles of the Mechanical Philosophy, they are the ULTIMATE ELEMENT s of the universe. They are substantial forms of being, they are eternal, indecompos ...

The science of Time is a noble science, that reveals the secret of Eternity. Only the Elites of Sages may ever come to know this secret. It is called the First Age, or the Age of ages, from which time is emerging.
Ibn al-Arabi [The Meccan Revelations: Volume I, page 156. - Trns. Mohamed Haj Yousef]

### The Sun from the West:

Welcome to the Single Monad Model of the Cosmos and Duality of Time Theory

### Message from the Author:

I have no doubt that this is the most significant discovery in the history of mathematics, physics and philosophy, ever!

By revealing the mystery of the connection between discreteness and contintuity, this novel understanding of the complex (time-time) geometry, will cause a paradigm shift in our knowledge of the fundamental nature of the cosmos and its corporeal and incorporeal structures.