# DUALITY OF TIME:

Complex-Time Geometry and Perpetual Creation of Space

# 2.15  Principle of Least Action

Some ancient philosophers noticed that many things in nature, such as rivers, always follow the shortest path available. In optics, Euclid noticed that, for the path of light reflecting from a mirror, the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection. Hero of Alexandria later showed that this path was the shortest length and least time.

This principle is called the least action, and it is often credited to Pierre Louis Maupertuis (1698-1759 AD), because he wrote about it in 1744, but Leonhard Euler (1707-1783 AD) discussed this principle before, and it has also been attributed to Leibniz.

The principle of least action is applied to the action of a mechanical system to obtain the equations of motion for that system. It can also be used to derive Newtonian, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian equations of motion, and even General Relativity, or what is known as the Einstein-Hilbert action. It has also been applied to derive important equations in Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Field Theory, as we shall see in chapter III.

The principle remains central in modern physics and mathematics, being applied in thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, the theory of relativity, Quantum Mechanics, particle physics, and string theory.

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• ... ack hole. It is a perfectly valid solution of the Einstein field equations, although it has some rather bizarre properties. For the Schwarzschild radial coordinate becomes time-like and the TIME COORDINATE becomes space-like. A curve at constant is no longer a possible world-line of a part ...

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The science of Time is a noble science, that reveals the secret of Eternity. Only the Elites of Sages may ever come to know this secret. It is called the First Age, or the Age of ages, from which time is emerging.
Ibn al-Arabi [The Meccan Revelations: Volume I, page 156. - Trns. Mohamed Haj Yousef]

### The Sun from the West:

Welcome to the Single Monad Model of the Cosmos and Duality of Time Theory

### Message from the Author:

I have no doubt that this is the most significant discovery in the history of mathematics, physics and philosophy, ever!

By revealing the mystery of the connection between discreteness and contintuity, this novel understanding of the complex (time-time) geometry, will cause a paradigm shift in our knowledge of the fundamental nature of the cosmos and its corporeal and incorporeal structures.