# DUALITY OF TIME:

Complex-Time Geometry and Perpetual Creation of Space

# 2.18  Light and Optics

Some aspects of geometrical optics have been studied by Ptolemy who developed a crude approximation to the law of refraction. His work was extended by the Al-Hazen (Ibn al-Haytham, 965-1038 AD), who also carried out experiments about lenses. In 1621 Willebrod Snell (1580-1626 AD) rediscovered the correct formula for the refraction of light, which now bears his name. At the beginning of the 17th century, the telescope and the microscope were invented.

There was considerable debate as to whether light consisted of small particles which were localized and traveled in straight lines, or of waves which spread out in space. Descartes adhered to the former explanation whereas in the late 1600s Christian Huygens (1629-1695 AD) argued for a wave theory, with the waves traveling through an aether which permeated all space and all objects. Newton used a combination of the two approaches: while light itself consisted of corpuscles, he believed that these particles could induce vibrations in the aether through which they traveled. For a century after Newton, the majority of scientists adhered to the corpuscular theory, until Thomas Young (1773-1829 AD) revived the wave theory for light through his interference experiments.

It was generally accepted that sound was transported by waves carried through the air, and Young argued that light traveled in a similar way. He used the interference pattern produced in his famous two-slit experiment. Then, in 1817, the Augustin Fresnel (1788-1827 AD) showed that all known optical phenomena could be explained by the wave theory provided that, following a suggestion of Young’s, the vibrations were transverse (perpendicular to the direction of light propagation) rather than parallel to it as for sound waves.

This firmly established the wave theory as dominant, although it did raise the question of how a fluid such as the aether could support a transverse vibration, since fluids usually have only longitudinal vibrations. This problem was a harbinger of an upcoming debate over the very existence of the aether.

It is now established that light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum with wavelengths in the range of 400-700 Nano-Meters, between the infrared and the ultraviolet, which corresponds to a frequency range of roughly 430-750 Tera-Hertz. The term, however, is sometimes used for electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength, including gamma rays, X-rays, microwaves and radio waves, in addition to visible light. All these types of light are emitted and absorbed in tiny packets called photons that exhibit properties of both waves and particles. We will discuss this wave-particle duality when we describe Quantum Mechanics in chapter III.

# Other Pages Related to Search Keywords:

• ... Space Transcendence Read this short concise exploration of the Duality of Time Postulate: DoT: The Duality of Time Postulate and Its Consequences on General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics ...

• ## ... Relativity And Quantum Mechanics =>:

• ... uality: from Time Confinement to Space Transcendence Read this short concise exploration of the Duality of Time Postulate: DoT: The Duality of Time Postulate and Its Consequences on General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics ...

• ## ... Concise Exploration =>:

• ... tual Creation of Space The Ultimate Symmetry: Fractal Complex-Time and Quantum Gravity The Chest of Time: Particle-Wave Duality: from Time Confinement to Space Transcendence Read this short CONCISE EXPLORATION of the Duality of Time Postulate: DoT: The Duality of Time Postulate and Its Con ...

• ## ... Short Concise =>:

• ... Perpertual Creation of Space The Ultimate Symmetry: Fractal Complex-Time and Quantum Gravity The Chest of Time: Particle-Wave Duality: from Time Confinement to Space Transcendence Read this SHORT CONCISE exploration of the Duality of Time Postulate: DoT: The Duality of Time Postulate and I ...

• ## ... Transcendence Read =>:

• ... mplex-Time Geometry and Perpertual Creation of Space The Ultimate Symmetry: Fractal Complex-Time and Quantum Gravity The Chest of Time: Particle-Wave Duality: from Time Confinement to Space Transcendence Read this short concise exploration of the Duality of Time Postulate: DoT: The Duality ...

• ## ... Perpertual Creation =>:

• ... ppear.â€ McEvoy (2001)     Read Other Books: The Single Monad Model of the Cosmos: Ibn Arabi's View of Time and Creation The Duality of Time Theory: Complex-Time Geometry and Perpertual Creation of Space The Ultimate Symmetry: Fractal Complex-Time and Quantum Gravity The Che ...

• ## ... Yousef Search =>:

• ... ate: DoT: The Duality of Time Postulate and Its Consequences on General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics ...

• ## ... Perpetual Creation =>:

• ... e exploration of the Duality of Time Postulate: DoT: The Duality of Time Postulate and Its Consequences on General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics ...

• ## ... Physical World =>:

• ... by the manifestation of physical entities, whose properties exist only in pairs, which Bohr described as complementary or conjugate pairs. For this reason, all properties and actions in the PHYSICAL WORLD manifest themselves as non-deterministic to some degree. Any observation or measureme ...

• ## ... Uncertainty Principle =>:

• ... €¢wave and particle â€¢value of a field and its change at a certain position Bohr also noticed that his complementarity principle is the underlying reality behind Heisenbergâ€™s UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE , which was in publication process at the time, so Heisenberg appended a note t ...

• ## ... Physical Entities =>:

• ... y and uncertainty restriction is not due to any inaccurate measurements or lack of knowledge about these complementary properties, but due to the limitations imposed by the manifestation of PHYSICAL ENTITIES , whose properties exist only in pairs, which Bohr described as complementary or co ...

• ## ... Wave Theory =>:

• ... ce of discontinuities, but is tied directly to the demand that we ascribe equal validity to the quite different experiments which show up in the [particulate] theory on one hand, and in the WAVE THEORY on the other hand.â€ Baggott (2011) Complementarity and uncertainty restriction is ...

The science of Time is a noble science, that reveals the secret of Eternity. Only the Elites of Sages may ever come to know this secret. It is called the First Age, or the Age of ages, from which time is emerging.
Ibn al-Arabi [The Meccan Revelations: Volume I, page 156. - Trns. Mohamed Haj Yousef]

### The Sun from the West:

Welcome to the Single Monad Model of the Cosmos and Duality of Time Theory

### Message from the Author:

I have no doubt that this is the most significant discovery in the history of mathematics, physics and philosophy, ever!

By revealing the mystery of the connection between discreteness and contintuity, this novel understanding of the complex (time-time) geometry, will cause a paradigm shift in our knowledge of the fundamental nature of the cosmos and its corporeal and incorporeal structures.