﻿ Problem of Color Confinement Based on the Duality of Time Theory

## The Problem of Color Confinement Based on the Duality of Time Theory

The following article is extracted from Chapter III of the Duality of Time book, and some of the details are discussed further in other chapters, as well as Volume III that is the Ultimate Symmetry.

### Color Confinement

Color or Quark confinement is also related to Yang-Mills problem, which is the fact that free quarks or gluons have never been detected, but only objects that are built out of them, such as mesons and baryons. It has been well established that the quantum Yang–Mills theory for a non-abelian Lie group exhibits a property known as confinement, which is why gluons have mass and cannot exist freely. In the absence of confinement, we would expect to see massless gluons, but since they are confined, all we would see are color-neutral bound states of gluons, called glueballs. If glueballs exist, they are massive, which is why a mass gap is expected.

As we noted in section 9.13, the solution to this problem is in the duality nature of time which stems from the Single Monad Model. In the resulting dynamic creation of space, the geometrical points which are the individual temporary monads, can not exist together, so they are coupled in order to make the physical objects or particles. Since the coupling occurs at least between two points, there is a minimum mass or energy which correspond to the minimum spatial dimension in which these particles are confined to it. In other words, the quarks and gluons exist in one or two dimensions of space where they move freely in their world without mass, but because we observe them from the third dimension we see them massive and always combined into other particles.

In fact, this multi-dimensional existence explains not only the mass-gap and color confinement, but also how mass and even other coupling parameter are generated in the first place, and why for example mass is only positive whereas other parameters are negative and positive and have various colors.

### List of Some Major Problems Solved by the Duality of Time Theory

In the following articles, we will list some of the major unsolved problems in theoretical physics and describe them in brief, stating their potential solutions according to the Duality of Time Postulate. Although many of these problems will be simply eliminated according to the new genuinely-complex time-time geometry, a detailed theoretical and mathematical analysis is required in order to explain how these problems are settled. Therefore, some of the following brief suggested solutions may be speculative.

These articles are extracted from Chapter III of the Duality of Time book, and some of the details are discussed further in other chapters, as well as Volume III that is the Ultimate Symmetry. A more concise description is also published in Time Chest.

### The Duality of Time Postulate

To understand how all these major problems could be solved so easily, please study first the Duality of Time Postulate, that has been extracted from Chapter V of the Duality of Time book.

The science of Time is a noble science, that reveals the secret of Eternity. Only the Elites of Sages may ever come to know this secret. It is called the First Age, or the Age of ages, from which time is emerging.
Ibn al-Arabi [The Meccan Revelations: Volume I, page 156. - Trns. Mohamed Haj Yousef]

### Message from the Author:

I have no doubt that this is the most significant discovery in the history of mathematics, physics and philosophy, ever!

This unique understanding of geometry will cause a paradigm shift in our knowledge of the fundamental nature of the cosmos and its corporeal and incorporeal structures.

Enjoy reading... , all the Best !

Mohamed bin Ali Haj Yousef

Check this detailed video presentation on "Deriving the Principles of Special, General and Quantum Relativity Based on the Single Monad Model Cosmos and Duality of Time Theory".